Leaked memo: Inside Amazon’s plan to “neutralize” highly effective unions by hiring ex-inmates and “weak college students”


In June 2021, the Worldwide Brotherhood of Teamsters, one of the crucial highly effective unions on the planet, printed a “particular decision” about Amazon, labeling the tech big “an existential menace” and vowing that “constructing employee energy at Amazon and serving to these staff obtain a union contract is a high precedence.”

However inside Amazon, firm officers have been already making ready for battle, based on a leaked inside memo seen by Recode and reported on right here for the primary time. The doc, from Might 2021, provides uncommon insights into the anti-union methods of one of many world’s strongest corporations. The memo laid out two essential objectives for Amazon: set up and deepen “relationships with key policymakers and group stakeholders” and enhance “Amazon’s general model.” The corporate has confronted heightened scrutiny and employee activism in recent times amid studies of harsh working circumstances and higher-than-average harm charges, leading to a sequence of unionization makes an attempt from Bessemer, Alabama, to Staten Island, New York.

“This engagement technique is especially necessary presently given the Worldwide Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) assaults towards Amazon, and its marketing campaign to unionize our workforce,” the memo warned.

To realize these objectives, the memo proposed methods to assist Amazon increase its repute and concurrently “neutralize” firm critics by befriending these critics’ personal allies and by launching feel-good initiatives to show the media and native politicians into firm boosters. Amazon’s worker relations group was creating a separate “internally-facing technique,” the memo mentioned.

The doc additionally provides an unvarnished take a look at how critically Amazon perceives the specter of the Teamsters, which has greater than 1.2 million members throughout industries, together with logistics and warehousing, and whose leaders have vowed to disrupt Amazon’s development plans so long as the tech big opposes unionization efforts.

Teamsters Common President Sean O’Brien informed Recode in July that his union is intent on “disrupting [Amazon’s] community till they get to some extent the place they give up” and cease resisting staff’ unionization efforts. One of many Teamsters’ essential points with Amazon’s employment mannequin is that, for many of its front-line staff, “there’s no means to an finish to a full-time profession,” O’Brien mentioned.

Whereas the memo for essentially the most half proposes methods for Southern California, Amazon management noticed it as a possible playbook of types to be utilized elsewhere, based on a supply acquainted with the technique. If these anti-union techniques proved profitable in California, which is a key logistics hub within the state most important to the corporate’s US operations, firm leaders hoped to copy the technique in “scorching spots” in North America, comparable to Boston and Chicago, the place the corporate has confronted heavy stress and criticism from union organizers.

“As a enterprise that delivers to neighborhoods throughout America, we work exhausting to strengthen our connections within the communities we serve,” Amazon spokesperson Paul Flaningan mentioned in a press release. “We’re consistently exploring methods we will enhance for our staff, our prospects, and our group companions. That features staff in any respect ranges of the group creating paperwork, participating in planning periods, and discussing totally different concepts — a few of which get enacted, a few of which don’t. Making ready for a lot of totally different doable situations permits us to reply rapidly to shifting enterprise calls for and exterior elements and one doc shouldn’t be interpreted as a method or place.”

“I like the truth that we’re [occupying] house of their head,” the Teamsters’ O’Brien mentioned. “They need to know we’re coming.”

California beefin’

California was all the time destined to be a serious battleground between Amazon and the Teamsters.

In response to the interior firm memo seen by Recode, “California homes Amazon’s largest footprint on the planet” and an worker base of greater than 200,000 staff throughout a wide range of warehouse codecs and Entire Meals and Amazon Contemporary grocery shops. Past that, Amazon additionally not directly employs tens of 1000’s of different staff in California who ship Amazon packages out of Amazon vans for small supply companies that signal unique agreements with the tech big.

Amazon tractor trailers line up outdoors the Amazon Success Middle in Staten Island, New York, in April 2021. Representatives from the Worldwide Brotherhood of Teamsters, a union that represents 1.4 million staff, voted final 12 months to make organizing Amazon staff a precedence.
Mark Lennihan/AP

For the Teamsters, the stakes are additionally clear: Amazon has been creating numerous non-union jobs throughout industries within the US which might be essential to the Teamsters’ survival, together with warehousing, trucking, and bundle supply, whereas concurrently stealing potential development from the Teamsters’ No. 1 employer, UPS. Maybe as necessary is that Amazon’s success and measurement — it’s the second-largest non-public employer within the US — means corporations attempt to emulate its practices, together with wages and work circumstances. That might make bargaining for higher wages and work circumstances more durable for Teamsters members.

Amazon employees acknowledged within the memo that the Teamsters’ “financial argument is … at present stronger,” with union truck drivers, warehouse staff, and grocery retailer employees incomes higher or equal compensation packages as Amazon staff within the Southern California area the memo centered on. (A couple of months later, in September 2021, Amazon introduced it had raised its common beginning wage for front-line staff to $18 an hour, although many staff make lower than that.)

Southern California, specifically, is an important logistics location for Amazon, its rivals, and the Teamsters, on account of its inhabitants of 24 million folks and two huge cargo ports in Los Angeles and Lengthy Seaside. Not surprisingly, “JC42,” the most important Teamsters US Joint Council — a set of native Teamsters unions in a given area — is situated in Southern California.

“Whereas we see a number of threats to our enterprise in Southern California,” the memo learn, “of these threats, JC42 is exponentially higher than its friends.”

“Their organizing efforts will spill past the achievement heart flooring and the truck cab, and will intrude with Amazon’s skill to safe building approvals, routing preferences, air enlargement, and different core capabilities of our operation,” the doc added.

Just some months after the Might 2021 memo warned of union interference, the Teamsters did simply that in Oceanside, a Southern California group about 40 miles north of San Diego, “inviting group members to signal ‘dedication playing cards’ to remain engaged about an Amazon growth,” Reuters reported. Quickly after, the native metropolis council voted towards the Amazon venture. And that’s only one instance, because the memo famous.

“From Vista to Burbank to Cypress, we have now run into opposition to our tasks in communities historically seen as business-friendly as a result of we have been late to interact with the group,” the memo warned.

The good friend of my enemy is my … good friend?

Because of this, the memo proposed that Amazon ought to create and foster partnerships with native nonprofits and group organizations that firm officers hoped would “present political cowl for native policymakers, neutralize organized labors’ makes an attempt to develop their coalition of third-party validators and spokespeople, and supply a platform for Amazon spokespeople and allies to talk of the true financial and social impression of Amazon in Southern California.”

And never simply any native nonprofits and organizations: Amazon shrewdly deliberate to “deliberately search partnerships with some organizations that work intently with our opposition.” These included organizations devoted to serving to incarcerated folks discover secure work upon reentry into society, such because the Anti-Recidivism Coalition, Homeboy Industries, and Defy Ventures, all named within the memo.

“The objective is to construct a partnership that cultivates group leaders who will validate our work and interact in [a] public announcement and PR marketing campaign that highlights Amazon’s true financial and social values,” the memo famous.

Alongside a mock press launch asserting such a possible partnership, the memo listed what is likely to be widespread inside questions for such a proposal, in addition to candid solutions. One query was, “How does this enhance our company repute?”

The reply: “Whereas our wage and profit choices could go above and past entry-level choices in different states, California’s minimal wage is about to hit $15/hour. By making a pipeline of staff who would instantly profit from our advantages in comparison with different friends within the area, we’re creating spokespeople that may enhance our repute, whereas serving to our communities most weak.”

A protester holds a sign that reads, “Labor justice is climate justice is health justice.”

Protesters rally in Will Rogers Memorial Park earlier than marching to Amazon founder Jeff Bezos’s mansion in Beverly Hills, California, in October 2020.
Genaro Molina/Los Angeles Occasions by way of Getty Photographs

One other query requested, “How will this earn Amazon Political capital, in areas the place we face unionization efforts?”

“A lot of Amazon’s opposition is aligned with insurance policies and organizations who assist social justice work and felony justice reform like we’re suggesting right here,” the reply said. “Many former offenders don’t qualify for federal advantages that would enhance their lives and supply stability put up incarceration. This permits Amazon to spotlight our advantages choices whereas creating safer, thriving communities.”

The doc added that Amazon would seemingly want to change its job candidate drug-screening practices if it needed to develop such an initiative. Positive sufficient, a month after the memo was distributed internally, Amazon introduced in June 2021 that it will not take a look at most job candidates for marijuana, which has been legalized for leisure use in 19 states plus the District of Columbia.

Taken collectively, these proposals are an unsurprising however stark reminder that, as is the case with many companies, Amazon’s public-facing actions are overwhelmingly in service of selling or defending the corporate, typically in response to critics demanding that the corporate enhance its labor practices. The billboards and TV commercials promoting the narrative of Amazon as an excellent place to work, and the PR-friendly group partnerships in cities throughout the nation the place Amazon needs to arrange store, are developed for these causes. Altruism this isn’t.

A faculty-to-Amazon-warehouse pipeline

Previously incarcerated folks have been only one weak group Amazon deliberate to work with to spice up its repute and gas its enlargement plans. It additionally strategized about creating hiring pipelines for underprivileged college students and staff in lower-income communities in Southern California.

The memo proposed that Amazon search accords with college districts in Southern California, such because the Los Angeles Unified Faculty District (LAUSD), to create a steady pipeline of staff for Amazon jobs from area people faculties. As of 2020, round 80 p.c of households with kids within the LAUSD stay at or under the poverty threshold, and solely 81 p.c of college students graduate highschool in 4 years in comparison with 88 p.c for California college students general. The memo mentioned a faculty district partnership would assist “a few of Southern California’s most weak college students” — and such an effort would additionally assist meet the corporate’s hiring wants by connecting full-time group faculty college students with jobs at Amazon. If profitable, the corporate would then search to strike comparable partnerships with the San Diego Unified Faculty District.

Within the Inland Empire area of California, which is very essential to Amazon’s operations as a result of it’s the state’s greatest logistics hub and the corporate instantly and not directly employs greater than 40,000 folks there, the memo proposed orchestrating an overhaul of workforce coaching applications at the side of metropolis companies and area people faculties. “The initiative will create pipelines for Inland Empire residents to entry center class careers that assist homeownership, retirement financial savings, faculty financial savings and the constructing of generational wealth,” a mock press launch mentioned.

Messaging its efforts in that approach would additionally assist Amazon counter assaults from the Teamsters and different labor activists that target “lack of job development and job safety [at Amazon] as a motive to unionize,” the memo famous.

“This is able to be a partnership the place Amazon’s present and future wants can be taught at metropolis and academic establishments,” the memo added. Translation: Amazon needed native municipalities and faculties to domesticate a pipeline of staff on behalf of the corporate, however in an arm’s-length trend. Basically, it will have the general public sector selling the wants of the non-public sector, all underneath the guise of benevolence.

Such a partnership would additionally tackle a looming drawback for Amazon within the area: In response to one other leaked Amazon memo beforehand reported on by Recode, the corporate has projected that it might quickly run out of staff to rent within the Inland Empire, on account of elevated competitors from different employers and rising dissatisfaction amongst Amazon’s staff. (After initially declining to remark for that prior story, Amazon later mentioned it was “hiring nicely” within the Inland Empire.)

Employees kind out parcels within the outbound dock on the Amazon achievement heart in Eastvale, California, in August 2021.
Watchara Phomicinda/MediaNews Group/The Press-Enterprise by way of Getty Photographs

For all the guarantees Amazon deliberate to make to the low-income college students and group members it sought to rent in Southern California, there’s a niche between these claims and actuality for many of its staff. Most notably, the corporate’s narrative about the way it provides middle-class careers to its staff appears to battle with the corporate’s sky-high employee churn charges, that are usually greater than one hundred pc. Employees in its warehouse community typically don’t final lengthy sufficient of their jobs to really obtain stability via these roles. Those that do handle to construct middle-class careers via Amazon warehouse jobs are usually the exception relatively than the rule.

The optimistic optics of variety

Past the partnerships geared toward boosting its hiring pipeline, Amazon additionally seemed to reinforce the corporate’s public picture via sustainability tasks, group beautification, and variety, fairness, and inclusion initiatives.

Amazon opponents, together with the Teamsters, have leveled criticisms towards the tech big for the air pollution round its warehouse and air cargo hubs, particularly in lower-income areas such because the Inland Empire.

“This narrative continues to negatively impression [Amazon] Public Coverage’s objectives within the area,” the memo mentioned.

Because of this, the memo provided proposals that included prioritizing the launch of electrical supply vans in “communities of colour” with excessive charges of air pollution, and setting a objective of taking Amazon amenities within the Inland Empire area off the grid by 2030, powering them as a substitute by way of hydrogen gas cells.

The doc additionally proposed investing in “enhancements alongside iconic Crenshaw Boulevard” in Los Angeles as a part of a Black community-led arts and infrastructure venture referred to as Vacation spot Crenshaw, and to “think about asserting inside Amazon efforts that diversify our management” at the side of the funding.

“We are going to work throughout the enterprise to associate with Vacation spot Crenshaw and different group teams utilizing the complete breadth of Amazon’s assets — our creatives, our teaching programs, our small enterprise investments — to not simply have our identify related to a bodily growth, however in order that the group sees Amazon as an organization that’s really invested of their success,” the memo learn.

Total, the memo highlights the extent to which union-led criticisms are creating sizable obstacles to Amazon’s development plans in its most important US market. However additionally they function a transparent reminder that the corporate possesses huge assets to fight critics, and crafty methods to painting repute makeovers as company benevolence.



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